Epidemiological profile of diabetes

Like most low- and middle-income Cameroon is epidemiological transition and knows thereby an increase in chronic noncommunicable diseases (CNCDs) such as diabetes. Diabetes is a disease that translates abnormally high levels of sugar in the blood. That is to say, a higher glucose 1.2g / l fasting or 2 g / l after two hours of meal. There are two types of diabetes, Type 2 is much more common than type 1.
 
Mortality and diabetes-related morbidity
 
Not only the prevalence of diabetes has long been underestimated in the absence of a framework for harmonization of diagnostic criteria such as that offered by WHO recommendations, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the National Diabetes Data Group USA but now she knows a meteoric rise in many developing countries, particularly those in sub-Saharan Africa. With a number of affected people estimated at 7146, it is believed that in 2030 18,645 people suffer from diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa.
 
At the Cameroon, the figures have long remained low, with prevalence estimated at 2.8 urban and 1.1 rural [Mbanya 1994] but another 2006 study showed prevalence tenfold with a prevalence in men 6.5% irrespective of the living environment in 2003 and a prevalence ranging from 8.5% in urban areas and 5% in rural areas in women [Njamnshi, Hiag, Mbanya. 2006]. As in Tanzania and Ghana, 60 to 80% of Cameroon's population lives without knowledge of his vis-à-vis diabetes status. The morbidity rate is estimated at 7.2% according to a study conducted at the Central Hospital of Yaounde [Etoa et al., 2014]. Note that the increase in these figures concerns both adults and children. Indeed, now estimated at 75,000 the number of children under five suffering from diabetes and among these only 500 receive medical attention.
 
There is a strong link between type 2 diabetes and obesity. The progression of diabetes follows a course parallel to that of obesity with a spectacular growth in developing countries. Its morbidity is also increased in the presence of hypertension. Indeed, 60% of diabetics suffer from high blood pressure [Katte et al, 2014. Nanfack et al., 2012]. The classical complications of diabetes are observed both in Africa and Europe but their severity is much higher in Africa because of the initial ignorance of the disease, its late entry in the load, difficulties of access to quality care and communicable diseases who regularly aggravate intercurrent pathology. The socioeconomic burden engendered by this disease makes it very difficult to care and contributes greatly to the increase in morbidity and mortality. Studies have found that the direct costs of care for a diabetic is about 25% of gross national income per capita in the 12 countries rich and 125% in the 34 poorest countries of the world. The total cost is to say, directly and indirectly, would represent in poor countries more than double the gross national income per capita (Conference of Ministers of Health).
 
Therapeutic education and means of prevention, improvement of generic requirements of the practitioners, the support of these treatments as that charged for HIV / AIDS medicines for all these reasons, many effective interventions that can improve the management of diabetes in our context and that of the developing countries.